Discover more with ScienceDirect

Receive personalized recommendations based on your recent signed-in activity

View your reading history

Create publication and search alerts

Explore scientific, technical, and medical research on ScienceDirect

From foundational science to new and novel research, discover our large collection of Physical Sciences and Engineering publications, covering a range of disciplines, from the theoretical to the applied.

Over 900,000 articles on ScienceDirect are open access

Articles published open access are peer-reviewed and made freely available for everyone to read, download and reuse in line with the user license displayed on the article.